Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis

The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectio...

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Main Authors: Yeon-Jin Kim, Hye Min Jang, Youngjo Lee, Donghwan Lee, Dai-Jin Kim
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2018-04-01
Series:International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/5/859
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spelling doaj-0339e87026c244dab6e9d1b794e4c97b2020-11-24T22:34:18ZengMDPI AGInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health1660-46012018-04-0115585910.3390/ijerph15050859ijerph15050859Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching AnalysisYeon-Jin Kim0Hye Min Jang1Youngjo Lee2Donghwan Lee3Dai-Jin Kim4Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, KoreaDepartment of Statistics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, KoreaDepartment of Statistics, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, KoreaDepartment of Statistics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, KoreaDepartment of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul 06591, KoreaThe associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU) groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.264; p < 0.001) compared to NUs. The SA group also showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.337; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.402; p < 0.001) compared to NCs. These findings show that both, IA and SA, exerted significant effects on depression and anxiety. Moreover, our findings showed that SA has a stronger relationship with depression and anxiety, stronger than IA, and emphasized the need for prevention and management policy of the excessive smartphone use.http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/5/859anxietydepressionInternet addictionsmartphone addictionpropensity score
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Yeon-Jin Kim
Hye Min Jang
Youngjo Lee
Donghwan Lee
Dai-Jin Kim
spellingShingle Yeon-Jin Kim
Hye Min Jang
Youngjo Lee
Donghwan Lee
Dai-Jin Kim
Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
anxiety
depression
Internet addiction
smartphone addiction
propensity score
author_facet Yeon-Jin Kim
Hye Min Jang
Youngjo Lee
Donghwan Lee
Dai-Jin Kim
author_sort Yeon-Jin Kim
title Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
title_short Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
title_full Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
title_fullStr Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
title_full_unstemmed Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
title_sort effects of internet and smartphone addictions on depression and anxiety based on propensity score matching analysis
publisher MDPI AG
series International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
issn 1660-4601
publishDate 2018-04-01
description The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU) groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.264; p < 0.001) compared to NUs. The SA group also showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.337; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.402; p < 0.001) compared to NCs. These findings show that both, IA and SA, exerted significant effects on depression and anxiety. Moreover, our findings showed that SA has a stronger relationship with depression and anxiety, stronger than IA, and emphasized the need for prevention and management policy of the excessive smartphone use.
topic anxiety
depression
Internet addiction
smartphone addiction
propensity score
url http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/5/859
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