Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans

Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a common indoor pollutant in multiunit housing (MUH). It is also the precursor of thirdhand smoke (THS), the toxic mixture of tobacco smoke residue that accumulates in indoor environments where tobacco has been used. This study examined the levels, distribution, and factors...

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Main Authors: Georg E. Matt, Penelope J.E. Quintana, Eunha Hoh, Joy M. Zakarian, Nathan G. Dodder, Rachael A. Record, Melbourne F. Hovell, E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Samuel Padilla, Laura Markman, Kayo Watanabe, Thomas E. Novotny
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Elsevier 2020-06-01
Series:Preventive Medicine Reports
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335520300486
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spelling doaj-12b31ed3beae46dd9154e592e1e744172020-11-25T03:13:31ZengElsevierPreventive Medicine Reports2211-33552020-06-0118Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bansGeorg E. Matt0Penelope J.E. Quintana1Eunha Hoh2Joy M. Zakarian3Nathan G. Dodder4Rachael A. Record5Melbourne F. Hovell6E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens7Samuel Padilla8Laura Markman9Kayo Watanabe10Thomas E. Novotny11San Diego State University Department of Psychology, San Diego, CA, USA; Corresponding author at: Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4611, United States.San Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University Research Foundation, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University Research Foundation, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University School of Communication, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego, CA, USACincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USASan Diego State University Research Foundation, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego, CA, USASan Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego, CA, USASecondhand smoke (SHS) is a common indoor pollutant in multiunit housing (MUH). It is also the precursor of thirdhand smoke (THS), the toxic mixture of tobacco smoke residue that accumulates in indoor environments where tobacco has been used. This study examined the levels, distribution, and factors associated with THS pollution in low-income MUH. Interviews were conducted 2016–2018 in a cross-sectional study of N = 220 MUH homes in San Diego, California. Two surface wipe samples were collected per home and analyzed for nicotine, a THS marker, using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Nicotine was detected in all homes of nonsmokers with indoor smoking bans (Geo Mean = 1.67 µg/m2; 95% CI = [1.23;2.30]) and smokers regardless of an indoor ban (Geo Mean = 4.80 µg/m2; 95% CI = [1.89;12.19]). Approximately 10% of nonsmokers’ homes with smoking bans showed nicotine levels higher than the average level in homes of smokers without smoking bans from previous studies (≥30 µg/m2). Housing for seniors, smoking bans on balconies, indoor tobacco use, difficult to reach surfaces, and self-reported African-American race/ethnicity were independently associated with higher THS levels. Individual cases demonstrated that high levels of surface nicotine may persist in nonsmoker homes for years after tobacco use even in the presence of indoor smoking bans. To achieve MUH free of tobacco smoke pollutants, attention must be given to identifying and remediating highly polluted units and to implementing smoking policies that prevent new accumulation of THS. As THS is a form of toxic tobacco product waste, responsibility for preventing and mitigating harmful impacts should include manufacturers, suppliers, and retailers.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335520300486NicotineTobacco smoke pollutionHousingPolicies
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Georg E. Matt
Penelope J.E. Quintana
Eunha Hoh
Joy M. Zakarian
Nathan G. Dodder
Rachael A. Record
Melbourne F. Hovell
E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
Samuel Padilla
Laura Markman
Kayo Watanabe
Thomas E. Novotny
spellingShingle Georg E. Matt
Penelope J.E. Quintana
Eunha Hoh
Joy M. Zakarian
Nathan G. Dodder
Rachael A. Record
Melbourne F. Hovell
E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
Samuel Padilla
Laura Markman
Kayo Watanabe
Thomas E. Novotny
Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
Preventive Medicine Reports
Nicotine
Tobacco smoke pollution
Housing
Policies
author_facet Georg E. Matt
Penelope J.E. Quintana
Eunha Hoh
Joy M. Zakarian
Nathan G. Dodder
Rachael A. Record
Melbourne F. Hovell
E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
Samuel Padilla
Laura Markman
Kayo Watanabe
Thomas E. Novotny
author_sort Georg E. Matt
title Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
title_short Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
title_full Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
title_fullStr Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
title_full_unstemmed Persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: Legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
title_sort persistent tobacco smoke residue in multiunit housing: legacy of permissive indoor smoking policies and challenges in the implementation of smoking bans
publisher Elsevier
series Preventive Medicine Reports
issn 2211-3355
publishDate 2020-06-01
description Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a common indoor pollutant in multiunit housing (MUH). It is also the precursor of thirdhand smoke (THS), the toxic mixture of tobacco smoke residue that accumulates in indoor environments where tobacco has been used. This study examined the levels, distribution, and factors associated with THS pollution in low-income MUH. Interviews were conducted 2016–2018 in a cross-sectional study of N = 220 MUH homes in San Diego, California. Two surface wipe samples were collected per home and analyzed for nicotine, a THS marker, using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Nicotine was detected in all homes of nonsmokers with indoor smoking bans (Geo Mean = 1.67 µg/m2; 95% CI = [1.23;2.30]) and smokers regardless of an indoor ban (Geo Mean = 4.80 µg/m2; 95% CI = [1.89;12.19]). Approximately 10% of nonsmokers’ homes with smoking bans showed nicotine levels higher than the average level in homes of smokers without smoking bans from previous studies (≥30 µg/m2). Housing for seniors, smoking bans on balconies, indoor tobacco use, difficult to reach surfaces, and self-reported African-American race/ethnicity were independently associated with higher THS levels. Individual cases demonstrated that high levels of surface nicotine may persist in nonsmoker homes for years after tobacco use even in the presence of indoor smoking bans. To achieve MUH free of tobacco smoke pollutants, attention must be given to identifying and remediating highly polluted units and to implementing smoking policies that prevent new accumulation of THS. As THS is a form of toxic tobacco product waste, responsibility for preventing and mitigating harmful impacts should include manufacturers, suppliers, and retailers.
topic Nicotine
Tobacco smoke pollution
Housing
Policies
url http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335520300486
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