Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation

Human milk is considered to be the best nutrition for all infants because it provides the optimal source of nutritional, immunological, developmental, psychological, economic, practical, and environmental benefits in both the short and long terms. To the best of our knowledge, few studies in Taiwan...

Full description

Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Hai-Hsuan Chao, Chih-Hung Guo, Chung-Bin Huang, Pei-Chung Chen, Hsiu-Chuan Li, Der-Yun Hsiung, Yu-Kung Chou
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Elsevier 2014-04-01
Series:Pediatrics and Neonatology
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875957213001502
id doaj-24fde960fc9545a9b5abde81211e8123
record_format Article
spelling doaj-24fde960fc9545a9b5abde81211e81232020-11-25T00:15:11ZengElsevierPediatrics and Neonatology1875-95722014-04-0155212713410.1016/j.pedneo.2013.08.005Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of LactationHai-Hsuan Chao0Chih-Hung Guo1Chung-Bin Huang2Pei-Chung Chen3Hsiu-Chuan Li4Der-Yun Hsiung5Yu-Kung Chou6Department of Pediatrics, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, TaiwanInstitute of Biomedical Nutrition, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, TaiwanDepartment of Pediatrics, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, TaiwanInstitute of Biomedical Nutrition, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, TaiwanInstitute of Biomedical Nutrition, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, TaiwanDepartment of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, TaiwanDepartment of Pediatrics, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, TaiwanHuman milk is considered to be the best nutrition for all infants because it provides the optimal source of nutritional, immunological, developmental, psychological, economic, practical, and environmental benefits in both the short and long terms. To the best of our knowledge, few studies in Taiwan have examined the toxicant levels in breast milk and associated factors. Methods: The research was carried out over a 6-month period. Forty-five healthy lactating women, who delivered full-term newborns at our maternity ward, were recruited, and all participants had been living in coastal urban areas of mid-Taiwan for at least 3 years. One hundred and eighty human milk samples were collected on four occasions, which were classified into four lactation stages as follows: colostrums, transitional milk, early mature milk, and mature milk. Results: We found that lead, cadmium, aluminium, and arsenic concentrations were the highest in colostrums: 13.22 ± 3.58 ng/mL, 1.37 ± 0.94 ng/mL, 56.45 ± 22.77 ng/mL, and 1.50 ± 1.50 ng/mL, respectively. The results of lead, cadmium, aluminium, and arsenic determination in human milk samples demonstrated a trend of decline of microelement concentrations with advancing stages of lactation. We found that the infants of smoking mothers were exposed to more cadmium than infants of nonsmoking mothers (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to our findings, frequent routine sampling of breast milk is worthwhile. Prevention strategies including behavior modification and education on proper nutrition should be provided to women who are at high risk of toxicant exposure. In summary, breastfeeding is still generally encouraged and recommended.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875957213001502aluminiumarseniccadmiumhuman milklead
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Hai-Hsuan Chao
Chih-Hung Guo
Chung-Bin Huang
Pei-Chung Chen
Hsiu-Chuan Li
Der-Yun Hsiung
Yu-Kung Chou
spellingShingle Hai-Hsuan Chao
Chih-Hung Guo
Chung-Bin Huang
Pei-Chung Chen
Hsiu-Chuan Li
Der-Yun Hsiung
Yu-Kung Chou
Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation
Pediatrics and Neonatology
aluminium
arsenic
cadmium
human milk
lead
author_facet Hai-Hsuan Chao
Chih-Hung Guo
Chung-Bin Huang
Pei-Chung Chen
Hsiu-Chuan Li
Der-Yun Hsiung
Yu-Kung Chou
author_sort Hai-Hsuan Chao
title Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation
title_short Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation
title_full Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation
title_fullStr Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation
title_full_unstemmed Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation
title_sort arsenic, cadmium, lead, and aluminium concentrations in human milk at early stages of lactation
publisher Elsevier
series Pediatrics and Neonatology
issn 1875-9572
publishDate 2014-04-01
description Human milk is considered to be the best nutrition for all infants because it provides the optimal source of nutritional, immunological, developmental, psychological, economic, practical, and environmental benefits in both the short and long terms. To the best of our knowledge, few studies in Taiwan have examined the toxicant levels in breast milk and associated factors. Methods: The research was carried out over a 6-month period. Forty-five healthy lactating women, who delivered full-term newborns at our maternity ward, were recruited, and all participants had been living in coastal urban areas of mid-Taiwan for at least 3 years. One hundred and eighty human milk samples were collected on four occasions, which were classified into four lactation stages as follows: colostrums, transitional milk, early mature milk, and mature milk. Results: We found that lead, cadmium, aluminium, and arsenic concentrations were the highest in colostrums: 13.22 ± 3.58 ng/mL, 1.37 ± 0.94 ng/mL, 56.45 ± 22.77 ng/mL, and 1.50 ± 1.50 ng/mL, respectively. The results of lead, cadmium, aluminium, and arsenic determination in human milk samples demonstrated a trend of decline of microelement concentrations with advancing stages of lactation. We found that the infants of smoking mothers were exposed to more cadmium than infants of nonsmoking mothers (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to our findings, frequent routine sampling of breast milk is worthwhile. Prevention strategies including behavior modification and education on proper nutrition should be provided to women who are at high risk of toxicant exposure. In summary, breastfeeding is still generally encouraged and recommended.
topic aluminium
arsenic
cadmium
human milk
lead
url http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875957213001502
work_keys_str_mv AT haihsuanchao arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
AT chihhungguo arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
AT chungbinhuang arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
AT peichungchen arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
AT hsiuchuanli arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
AT deryunhsiung arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
AT yukungchou arseniccadmiumleadandaluminiumconcentrationsinhumanmilkatearlystagesoflactation
_version_ 1725388287845072896