Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia

Tariq Al Bahhawi,1 Osama B Albasheer,1 Anwar M Makeen,1 Abdulelah Mohammed Arishi,2 Othman Mohammed Hakami,2 Sultan Mohsen Maashi,2 Hamood Khairat Al-Khairat,2 Omar Madiny Alganmy,2 Yasir Adnan Sahal,2 Abdulaziz Aaref Sharif,2 Mohamed Salih Mahfouz1 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Med...

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Main Authors: Al Bahhawi T, Albasheer OB, Makeen AM, Arishi AM, Hakami OM, Maashi SM, Al-Khairat HK, Alganmy OM, Sahal YA, Sharif AA, Mahfouz MS
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Dove Medical Press 2018-10-01
Series:Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.dovepress.com/depression-anxiety-and-stress-and-their-association-with-khat-use-a-cr-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
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spelling doaj-2eccb011303f45e7847e0ecb9ea944992020-11-24T22:19:33ZengDove Medical PressNeuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment1178-20212018-10-01Volume 142755276141532Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi ArabiaAl Bahhawi TAlbasheer OBMakeen AMArishi AMHakami OMMaashi SMAl-Khairat HKAlganmy OMSahal YASharif AAMahfouz MSTariq Al Bahhawi,1 Osama B Albasheer,1 Anwar M Makeen,1 Abdulelah Mohammed Arishi,2 Othman Mohammed Hakami,2 Sultan Mohsen Maashi,2 Hamood Khairat Al-Khairat,2 Omar Madiny Alganmy,2 Yasir Adnan Sahal,2 Abdulaziz Aaref Sharif,2 Mohamed Salih Mahfouz1 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress levels are considered important indicators for mental health. Khat chewing habit is prevalent among all segments of Jazan population in Saudi Arabia. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students, and information about the correlation between khat use and these disorders is scarce. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their correlation with khat chewing and other risk factors among Jazan University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 students from Jazan University. Multistage sampling was used, with probability proportional to size-sampling technique. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. Results: Moderate depression was prevalent among 53.6% of the sample, anxiety was found among 65.7%, while 34.3% of the students suffered from stress. Female gender was strongly associated with higher mean scores for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, with P-values <0.05 for all. Moreover, anxiety symptoms scores were statistically associated with grade point average and caffeine consumption. Khat use was statistically associated with higher mean scores of anxiety among males and a higher mean score of depression and anxiety among females. Conclusion: The results indicate a high rate of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students. Khat use was associated with anxiety, and a higher rate of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress was indicated among female students. Therefore, strategy for the prevention and management of depression, anxiety, and stress is highly recommended to minimize the impact of these serious disorders. Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, DASS-21, khat use, and Jazanhttps://www.dovepress.com/depression-anxiety-and-stress-and-their-association-with-khat-use-a-cr-peer-reviewed-article-NDTDepressionanxietystressDASS-21khat use and Jazan
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Al Bahhawi T
Albasheer OB
Makeen AM
Arishi AM
Hakami OM
Maashi SM
Al-Khairat HK
Alganmy OM
Sahal YA
Sharif AA
Mahfouz MS
spellingShingle Al Bahhawi T
Albasheer OB
Makeen AM
Arishi AM
Hakami OM
Maashi SM
Al-Khairat HK
Alganmy OM
Sahal YA
Sharif AA
Mahfouz MS
Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Depression
anxiety
stress
DASS-21
khat use and Jazan
author_facet Al Bahhawi T
Albasheer OB
Makeen AM
Arishi AM
Hakami OM
Maashi SM
Al-Khairat HK
Alganmy OM
Sahal YA
Sharif AA
Mahfouz MS
author_sort Al Bahhawi T
title Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia
title_short Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia
title_full Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia
title_fullStr Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia
title_full_unstemmed Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, Saudi Arabia
title_sort depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among jazan university students, saudi arabia
publisher Dove Medical Press
series Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
issn 1178-2021
publishDate 2018-10-01
description Tariq Al Bahhawi,1 Osama B Albasheer,1 Anwar M Makeen,1 Abdulelah Mohammed Arishi,2 Othman Mohammed Hakami,2 Sultan Mohsen Maashi,2 Hamood Khairat Al-Khairat,2 Omar Madiny Alganmy,2 Yasir Adnan Sahal,2 Abdulaziz Aaref Sharif,2 Mohamed Salih Mahfouz1 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress levels are considered important indicators for mental health. Khat chewing habit is prevalent among all segments of Jazan population in Saudi Arabia. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students, and information about the correlation between khat use and these disorders is scarce. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their correlation with khat chewing and other risk factors among Jazan University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 students from Jazan University. Multistage sampling was used, with probability proportional to size-sampling technique. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21 questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. Results: Moderate depression was prevalent among 53.6% of the sample, anxiety was found among 65.7%, while 34.3% of the students suffered from stress. Female gender was strongly associated with higher mean scores for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, with P-values <0.05 for all. Moreover, anxiety symptoms scores were statistically associated with grade point average and caffeine consumption. Khat use was statistically associated with higher mean scores of anxiety among males and a higher mean score of depression and anxiety among females. Conclusion: The results indicate a high rate of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress among Jazan University students. Khat use was associated with anxiety, and a higher rate of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress was indicated among female students. Therefore, strategy for the prevention and management of depression, anxiety, and stress is highly recommended to minimize the impact of these serious disorders. Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, DASS-21, khat use, and Jazan
topic Depression
anxiety
stress
DASS-21
khat use and Jazan
url https://www.dovepress.com/depression-anxiety-and-stress-and-their-association-with-khat-use-a-cr-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
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