Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency

High levels of atmospheric concentration of PM<sub>2.5</sub> (particulate matters less than 2.5 &#956;m in size) are one of the most urgent societal issues over the East Asian countries. Air quality models have been used as an essential tool to predict spatial and temporal distributi...

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Main Authors: Min-Woo Choi, Jae-Hyeong Lee, Ju-Wan Woo, Cheol-Hee Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2019-10-01
Series:Atmosphere
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/10/10/618
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spelling doaj-2f0dbc083c3c47119c3c71dcdeca565f2020-11-25T02:33:16ZengMDPI AGAtmosphere2073-44332019-10-01101061810.3390/atmos10100618atmos10100618Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction InconsistencyMin-Woo Choi0Jae-Hyeong Lee1Ju-Wan Woo2Cheol-Hee Kim3Sang-Hyun Lee4Department of Atmospheric Science, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, KoreaDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, KoreaDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, KoreaDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, KoreaDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, KoreaHigh levels of atmospheric concentration of PM<sub>2.5</sub> (particulate matters less than 2.5 &#956;m in size) are one of the most urgent societal issues over the East Asian countries. Air quality models have been used as an essential tool to predict spatial and temporal distribution of the PM<sub>2.5</sub> and to support relevant policy making. This study aims to investigate the performance of high-fidelity air quality models in simulating surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> chemical composition over the East Asia region in terms of a prediction consistency, which is a prerequisite for accurate air quality forecasts and reliable policy decision. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) and WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system) models were selected and uniquely configured for a one-month simulation by controlling surface emissions and meteorological processes (model options) to investigate the prediction consistency focusing the analyses on the effects of meteorological and chemical processes. The results showed that the surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> chemical components simulated by both the models had significant inconsistencies over East Asia ranging fractional differences of 53% &#177; 30% despite the differences in emissions and meteorological fields were minimal. The models&#8217; large inconsistencies in the surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration were attributed to the significant differences in each model&#8217;s chemical responses to the meteorological variables, which were identified from the multiple linear regression analyses. Our findings suggest that the significant models&#8217; prediction inconsistencies should be considered with a great caution in the PM<sub>2.5</sub> forecasts and policy support over the East Asian region.https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/10/10/618air quality modelair quality forecastcmaqeast asiapm<sub>2.5</sub>wrf-chem
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Min-Woo Choi
Jae-Hyeong Lee
Ju-Wan Woo
Cheol-Hee Kim
Sang-Hyun Lee
spellingShingle Min-Woo Choi
Jae-Hyeong Lee
Ju-Wan Woo
Cheol-Hee Kim
Sang-Hyun Lee
Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency
Atmosphere
air quality model
air quality forecast
cmaq
east asia
pm<sub>2.5</sub>
wrf-chem
author_facet Min-Woo Choi
Jae-Hyeong Lee
Ju-Wan Woo
Cheol-Hee Kim
Sang-Hyun Lee
author_sort Min-Woo Choi
title Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency
title_short Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency
title_full Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency
title_fullStr Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency
title_full_unstemmed Comparison of PM<sub>2.5</sub> Chemical Components over East Asia Simulated by the WRF-Chem and WRF/CMAQ Models: On the Models’ Prediction Inconsistency
title_sort comparison of pm<sub>2.5</sub> chemical components over east asia simulated by the wrf-chem and wrf/cmaq models: on the models’ prediction inconsistency
publisher MDPI AG
series Atmosphere
issn 2073-4433
publishDate 2019-10-01
description High levels of atmospheric concentration of PM<sub>2.5</sub> (particulate matters less than 2.5 &#956;m in size) are one of the most urgent societal issues over the East Asian countries. Air quality models have been used as an essential tool to predict spatial and temporal distribution of the PM<sub>2.5</sub> and to support relevant policy making. This study aims to investigate the performance of high-fidelity air quality models in simulating surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> chemical composition over the East Asia region in terms of a prediction consistency, which is a prerequisite for accurate air quality forecasts and reliable policy decision. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) and WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system) models were selected and uniquely configured for a one-month simulation by controlling surface emissions and meteorological processes (model options) to investigate the prediction consistency focusing the analyses on the effects of meteorological and chemical processes. The results showed that the surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> chemical components simulated by both the models had significant inconsistencies over East Asia ranging fractional differences of 53% &#177; 30% despite the differences in emissions and meteorological fields were minimal. The models&#8217; large inconsistencies in the surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration were attributed to the significant differences in each model&#8217;s chemical responses to the meteorological variables, which were identified from the multiple linear regression analyses. Our findings suggest that the significant models&#8217; prediction inconsistencies should be considered with a great caution in the PM<sub>2.5</sub> forecasts and policy support over the East Asian region.
topic air quality model
air quality forecast
cmaq
east asia
pm<sub>2.5</sub>
wrf-chem
url https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/10/10/618
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