Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa

Abstract Background Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify maternal demographic and antenatal factors associated with PB and LBW among low socio-economic communities. Methods Pregna...

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Main Authors: Prakash M. Jeena, Kareshma Asharam, Aweke A. Mitku, Pragalathan Naidoo, Rajen N. Naidoo
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: BMC 2020-10-01
Series:BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Subjects:
Age
Online Access:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12884-020-03328-6
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spelling doaj-365af5ea7d364557bf8f3e82b2a4a6282020-11-25T03:44:23ZengBMCBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth1471-23932020-10-0120111110.1186/s12884-020-03328-6Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South AfricaPrakash M. Jeena0Kareshma Asharam1Aweke A. Mitku2Pragalathan Naidoo3Rajen N. Naidoo4Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-NatalDiscipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-NatalDiscipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-NatalDiscipline of Medical Biochemistry and Chemical Pathology, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-NatalDiscipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-NatalAbstract Background Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify maternal demographic and antenatal factors associated with PB and LBW among low socio-economic communities. Methods Pregnant women (n = 1099) were recruited in the first trimester into the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort in Durban, South Africa. Maternal factors such as demographic information, health status, residential area, occupational, personal and environmental smoking and biomass fuel use were obtained through standardised interviews, while clinical status was obtained in each trimester and antenatal information on HIV status and treatment, syphilis and conditions such as pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes etc. was extracted from the antenatal assessments. Key outcomes of interest were preterm birth and low birthweight. The latter data was obtained from the clinical assessments performed by midwives at delivery. Logistic regression models identified factors associated with PB and LBW. Results Of the 760 live births, 16.4 and 13.5% were preterm and LBW, respectively. Mothers who delivered by caesarean section had an increased odds of having LBW babies (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.7) and PB (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.7) versus normal vaginal deliveries. Mothers > 30 years (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9) and current smokers (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8) had an increased odds of having PB babies. Compared to younger mothers and non-smokers respectively. An effect of PB and LBW was seen among mothers with high BMI (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) (PB: AOR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9 and LBW: AOR: 0.5, 0.5, CI: 0.3–0.8), and obese BMI (> 30 kg/m2) (PB: AOR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9 and LBW: AOR: 0.4, CI: 0.2–0.7). Maternal HIV (PB AOR: 1.4 and LBW AOR: 1.2) and history of sexually transmitted infections (PB AOR: 2.7 and LBW AOR: 4.2) were not statistically significant. Conclusion Maternal age, cigarette smoking and caesarean delivery were associated with LBW and PB. Findings highlight the need of maternal health interventions to improve new-born health outcomes.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12884-020-03328-6AgeCigarette smokingCaesarean deliveryPreterm birthLow birthweight
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Prakash M. Jeena
Kareshma Asharam
Aweke A. Mitku
Pragalathan Naidoo
Rajen N. Naidoo
spellingShingle Prakash M. Jeena
Kareshma Asharam
Aweke A. Mitku
Pragalathan Naidoo
Rajen N. Naidoo
Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Age
Cigarette smoking
Caesarean delivery
Preterm birth
Low birthweight
author_facet Prakash M. Jeena
Kareshma Asharam
Aweke A. Mitku
Pragalathan Naidoo
Rajen N. Naidoo
author_sort Prakash M. Jeena
title Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa
title_short Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa
title_full Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa
title_fullStr Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa
title_full_unstemmed Maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (MACE) birth cohort, Durban, South Africa
title_sort maternal demographic and antenatal factors, low birth weight and preterm birth: findings from the mother and child in the environment (mace) birth cohort, durban, south africa
publisher BMC
series BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
issn 1471-2393
publishDate 2020-10-01
description Abstract Background Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify maternal demographic and antenatal factors associated with PB and LBW among low socio-economic communities. Methods Pregnant women (n = 1099) were recruited in the first trimester into the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort in Durban, South Africa. Maternal factors such as demographic information, health status, residential area, occupational, personal and environmental smoking and biomass fuel use were obtained through standardised interviews, while clinical status was obtained in each trimester and antenatal information on HIV status and treatment, syphilis and conditions such as pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes etc. was extracted from the antenatal assessments. Key outcomes of interest were preterm birth and low birthweight. The latter data was obtained from the clinical assessments performed by midwives at delivery. Logistic regression models identified factors associated with PB and LBW. Results Of the 760 live births, 16.4 and 13.5% were preterm and LBW, respectively. Mothers who delivered by caesarean section had an increased odds of having LBW babies (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.7) and PB (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.7) versus normal vaginal deliveries. Mothers > 30 years (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9) and current smokers (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8) had an increased odds of having PB babies. Compared to younger mothers and non-smokers respectively. An effect of PB and LBW was seen among mothers with high BMI (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) (PB: AOR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9 and LBW: AOR: 0.5, 0.5, CI: 0.3–0.8), and obese BMI (> 30 kg/m2) (PB: AOR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9 and LBW: AOR: 0.4, CI: 0.2–0.7). Maternal HIV (PB AOR: 1.4 and LBW AOR: 1.2) and history of sexually transmitted infections (PB AOR: 2.7 and LBW AOR: 4.2) were not statistically significant. Conclusion Maternal age, cigarette smoking and caesarean delivery were associated with LBW and PB. Findings highlight the need of maternal health interventions to improve new-born health outcomes.
topic Age
Cigarette smoking
Caesarean delivery
Preterm birth
Low birthweight
url http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12884-020-03328-6
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