Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae

Recent studies show the feasibility of photodynamic inactivation of green algae as a vital step towards an effective photodynamic suppression of biofilms by using functionalized surfaces. The investigation of the intrinsic mechanisms of photodynamic inactivation in green algae represents the next st...

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Main Authors: Tobias Bornhütter, Judith Pohl, Christian Fischer, Irena Saltsman, Atif Mahammed, Zeev Gross, Beate Röder
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2016-04-01
Series:Molecules
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/4/485
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spelling doaj-3996f09672cb4f9baaeaacc6e5f9d9a12020-11-24T23:19:48ZengMDPI AGMolecules1420-30492016-04-0121448510.3390/molecules21040485molecules21040485Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green AlgaeTobias Bornhütter0Judith Pohl1Christian Fischer2Irena Saltsman3Atif Mahammed4Zeev Gross5Beate Röder6Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin 10099, GermanyDepartment of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin 10099, GermanyDepartment of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin 10099, GermanySchulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, IsraelSchulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, IsraelSchulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, IsraelDepartment of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin 10099, GermanyRecent studies show the feasibility of photodynamic inactivation of green algae as a vital step towards an effective photodynamic suppression of biofilms by using functionalized surfaces. The investigation of the intrinsic mechanisms of photodynamic inactivation in green algae represents the next step in order to determine optimization parameters. The observation of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics proved to be a very effective approach towards understanding mechanisms on a cellular level. In this study, the first two-dimensional measurement of singlet oxygen kinetics in phototrophic microorganisms on surfaces during photodynamic inactivation is presented. We established a system of reproducible algae samples on surfaces, incubated with two different cationic, antimicrobial potent photosensitizers. Fluorescence microscopy images indicate that one photosensitizer localizes inside the green algae while the other accumulates along the outer algae cell wall. A newly developed setup allows for the measurement of singlet oxygen luminescence on the green algae sample surfaces over several days. The kinetics of the singlet oxygen luminescence of both photosensitizers show different developments and a distinct change over time, corresponding with the differences in their localization as well as their photosensitization potential. While the complexity of the signal reveals a challenge for the future, this study incontrovertibly marks a crucial, inevitable step in the investigation of photodynamic inactivation of biofilms: it shows the feasibility of using the singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics to investigate photodynamic effects on surfaces and thus opens a field for numerous investigations.http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/4/485singlet oxygenphotodynamic inactivationphototoxicitybiofilmscorroles
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Tobias Bornhütter
Judith Pohl
Christian Fischer
Irena Saltsman
Atif Mahammed
Zeev Gross
Beate Röder
spellingShingle Tobias Bornhütter
Judith Pohl
Christian Fischer
Irena Saltsman
Atif Mahammed
Zeev Gross
Beate Röder
Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae
Molecules
singlet oxygen
photodynamic inactivation
phototoxicity
biofilms
corroles
author_facet Tobias Bornhütter
Judith Pohl
Christian Fischer
Irena Saltsman
Atif Mahammed
Zeev Gross
Beate Röder
author_sort Tobias Bornhütter
title Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae
title_short Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae
title_full Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae
title_fullStr Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae
title_full_unstemmed Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae
title_sort development of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics during the photodynamic inactivation of green algae
publisher MDPI AG
series Molecules
issn 1420-3049
publishDate 2016-04-01
description Recent studies show the feasibility of photodynamic inactivation of green algae as a vital step towards an effective photodynamic suppression of biofilms by using functionalized surfaces. The investigation of the intrinsic mechanisms of photodynamic inactivation in green algae represents the next step in order to determine optimization parameters. The observation of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics proved to be a very effective approach towards understanding mechanisms on a cellular level. In this study, the first two-dimensional measurement of singlet oxygen kinetics in phototrophic microorganisms on surfaces during photodynamic inactivation is presented. We established a system of reproducible algae samples on surfaces, incubated with two different cationic, antimicrobial potent photosensitizers. Fluorescence microscopy images indicate that one photosensitizer localizes inside the green algae while the other accumulates along the outer algae cell wall. A newly developed setup allows for the measurement of singlet oxygen luminescence on the green algae sample surfaces over several days. The kinetics of the singlet oxygen luminescence of both photosensitizers show different developments and a distinct change over time, corresponding with the differences in their localization as well as their photosensitization potential. While the complexity of the signal reveals a challenge for the future, this study incontrovertibly marks a crucial, inevitable step in the investigation of photodynamic inactivation of biofilms: it shows the feasibility of using the singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics to investigate photodynamic effects on surfaces and thus opens a field for numerous investigations.
topic singlet oxygen
photodynamic inactivation
phototoxicity
biofilms
corroles
url http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/4/485
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