Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity

Changes in lifestyle can be significantly reflected in growth and development. Adaptations to reduced levels of physical activity, together with non-corresponding nutritional intakes, can result in body build and body composition changes at an early age. The present cross-sectional study aimed to ev...

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Main Authors: Petr Sedlak, Jana Pařízková, Daniela Samešová, Martin Musálek, Hana Dvořáková, Jan Novák
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2021-12-01
Series:Children
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/8/1/18
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spelling doaj-52f1a75596f74a8083d5556cc03664242021-04-02T19:14:46ZengMDPI AGChildren2227-90672021-12-018181810.3390/children8010018Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent ObesityPetr Sedlak0Jana Pařízková1Daniela Samešová2Martin Musálek3Hana Dvořáková4Jan Novák5Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 120 00 Prague 2, Czech RepublicDepartment of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 120 00 Prague 2, Czech RepublicDepartment of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 120 00 Prague 2, Czech RepublicDepartment of Kinanthropology and Humanities, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University, José Martího 269, 162 52 Prague 6, Czech RepublicDepartment of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Charles University, Magdalény Rettigové 4, 116 39 Prague 1, Czech RepublicDepartment of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 120 00 Prague 2, Czech RepublicChanges in lifestyle can be significantly reflected in growth and development. Adaptations to reduced levels of physical activity, together with non-corresponding nutritional intakes, can result in body build and body composition changes at an early age. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the secular trend of modifications of body composition and body mass index (BMI) in Czech preschoolers over the last two to three decades. Boys and girls (386 boys and 372 girls) aged 4 to 6 years in 2014–2019 were measured. Outcome data were compared with the reference sample of preschoolers from 1990: 911 boys and 896 girls. Body height, BMI, and percentage of body fat, muscle, and bone mass were evaluated. Height and BMI have not changed. Body fat increased in both genders (<i>p</i> < 0.01), and contrarily, a significant reduction of muscle and skeletal mass was revealed (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Significant changes in body composition and unchanged BMI indicate the development of latent obesity during the last few decades. Due to latent obesity in a recent cohort, the differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity markers according to BMI and fat percentage were tested. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher by 7.2% in boys, and by 6.5% in girls, as compared to children evaluated according to only their BMI results. Secular changes in preschoolers’ physical builds over the last 25 years are not reflected in body height and BMI, but in body composition. Insufficient development of active, lean body mass proportionally compensated by increased fat mass was also indicated.https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/8/1/18body compositionbody mass index (BMI)latent obesitysecular trendpreschool children
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Petr Sedlak
Jana Pařízková
Daniela Samešová
Martin Musálek
Hana Dvořáková
Jan Novák
spellingShingle Petr Sedlak
Jana Pařízková
Daniela Samešová
Martin Musálek
Hana Dvořáková
Jan Novák
Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity
Children
body composition
body mass index (BMI)
latent obesity
secular trend
preschool children
author_facet Petr Sedlak
Jana Pařízková
Daniela Samešová
Martin Musálek
Hana Dvořáková
Jan Novák
author_sort Petr Sedlak
title Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity
title_short Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity
title_full Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity
title_fullStr Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity
title_full_unstemmed Secular Changes in Body Build and Body Composition in Czech Preschool Children in the Context of Latent Obesity
title_sort secular changes in body build and body composition in czech preschool children in the context of latent obesity
publisher MDPI AG
series Children
issn 2227-9067
publishDate 2021-12-01
description Changes in lifestyle can be significantly reflected in growth and development. Adaptations to reduced levels of physical activity, together with non-corresponding nutritional intakes, can result in body build and body composition changes at an early age. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the secular trend of modifications of body composition and body mass index (BMI) in Czech preschoolers over the last two to three decades. Boys and girls (386 boys and 372 girls) aged 4 to 6 years in 2014–2019 were measured. Outcome data were compared with the reference sample of preschoolers from 1990: 911 boys and 896 girls. Body height, BMI, and percentage of body fat, muscle, and bone mass were evaluated. Height and BMI have not changed. Body fat increased in both genders (<i>p</i> < 0.01), and contrarily, a significant reduction of muscle and skeletal mass was revealed (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Significant changes in body composition and unchanged BMI indicate the development of latent obesity during the last few decades. Due to latent obesity in a recent cohort, the differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity markers according to BMI and fat percentage were tested. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher by 7.2% in boys, and by 6.5% in girls, as compared to children evaluated according to only their BMI results. Secular changes in preschoolers’ physical builds over the last 25 years are not reflected in body height and BMI, but in body composition. Insufficient development of active, lean body mass proportionally compensated by increased fat mass was also indicated.
topic body composition
body mass index (BMI)
latent obesity
secular trend
preschool children
url https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/8/1/18
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