Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs

Hybrid constructs represent substantial progress in tissue engineering (TE) towards producing implants of a clinically relevant size that recapitulate the structure and multicellular complexity of the native tissue. They are created by interlacing printed scaffolds, sacrificial materials, and cell-l...

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Main Authors: Enrique Sodupe Ortega, Andres Sanz-Garcia, Alpha Pernia-Espinoza, Carmen Escobedo-Lucea
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2019-02-01
Series:Materials
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/12/4/613
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spelling doaj-5333f118429d4988afa6de7d3ca0e0ad2020-11-25T01:51:37ZengMDPI AGMaterials1996-19442019-02-0112461310.3390/ma12040613ma12040613Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered ConstructsEnrique Sodupe Ortega0Andres Sanz-Garcia1Alpha Pernia-Espinoza2Carmen Escobedo-Lucea3EDMANS Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, San José de Calasanz 31, Edificio Departamental, 26004 Logroño, SpainDivision of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5 E (P.O. Box 56), 00014 Helsinki, FinlandEDMANS Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, San José de Calasanz 31, Edificio Departamental, 26004 Logroño, SpainDivision of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5 E (P.O. Box 56), 00014 Helsinki, FinlandHybrid constructs represent substantial progress in tissue engineering (TE) towards producing implants of a clinically relevant size that recapitulate the structure and multicellular complexity of the native tissue. They are created by interlacing printed scaffolds, sacrificial materials, and cell-laden hydrogels. A suitable biomaterial is a polycaprolactone (PCL); however, due to the higher viscosity of this biopolymer, three-dimensional (3D) printing of PCL is slow, so reducing PCL print times remains a challenge. We investigated parameters, such as nozzle shape and size, carriage speed, and print temperature, to find a tradeoff that speeds up the creation of hybrid constructs of controlled porosity. We performed experiments with conical, cylindrical, and cylindrical shortened nozzles and numerical simulations to infer a more comprehensive understanding of PCL flow rate. We found that conical nozzles are advised as they exhibited the highest shear rate, which increased the flow rate. When working at a low carriage speed, conical nozzles of a small diameter tended to form-flatten filaments and became highly inefficient. However, raising the carriage speed revealed shortcomings because passing specific values created filaments with a heterogeneous diameter. Small nozzles produced scaffolds with thin strands but at long building times. Using large nozzles and a high carriage speed is recommended. Overall, we demonstrated that hybrid constructs with a clinically relevant size could be much more feasible to print when reaching a tradeoff between temperature, nozzle diameter, and speed.https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/12/4/613tissue engineeringpolycaprolactoneporous scaffoldshybrid constructs3D printing
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Enrique Sodupe Ortega
Andres Sanz-Garcia
Alpha Pernia-Espinoza
Carmen Escobedo-Lucea
spellingShingle Enrique Sodupe Ortega
Andres Sanz-Garcia
Alpha Pernia-Espinoza
Carmen Escobedo-Lucea
Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs
Materials
tissue engineering
polycaprolactone
porous scaffolds
hybrid constructs
3D printing
author_facet Enrique Sodupe Ortega
Andres Sanz-Garcia
Alpha Pernia-Espinoza
Carmen Escobedo-Lucea
author_sort Enrique Sodupe Ortega
title Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs
title_short Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs
title_full Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs
title_fullStr Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs
title_full_unstemmed Efficient Fabrication of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Printing Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Constructs
title_sort efficient fabrication of polycaprolactone scaffolds for printing hybrid tissue-engineered constructs
publisher MDPI AG
series Materials
issn 1996-1944
publishDate 2019-02-01
description Hybrid constructs represent substantial progress in tissue engineering (TE) towards producing implants of a clinically relevant size that recapitulate the structure and multicellular complexity of the native tissue. They are created by interlacing printed scaffolds, sacrificial materials, and cell-laden hydrogels. A suitable biomaterial is a polycaprolactone (PCL); however, due to the higher viscosity of this biopolymer, three-dimensional (3D) printing of PCL is slow, so reducing PCL print times remains a challenge. We investigated parameters, such as nozzle shape and size, carriage speed, and print temperature, to find a tradeoff that speeds up the creation of hybrid constructs of controlled porosity. We performed experiments with conical, cylindrical, and cylindrical shortened nozzles and numerical simulations to infer a more comprehensive understanding of PCL flow rate. We found that conical nozzles are advised as they exhibited the highest shear rate, which increased the flow rate. When working at a low carriage speed, conical nozzles of a small diameter tended to form-flatten filaments and became highly inefficient. However, raising the carriage speed revealed shortcomings because passing specific values created filaments with a heterogeneous diameter. Small nozzles produced scaffolds with thin strands but at long building times. Using large nozzles and a high carriage speed is recommended. Overall, we demonstrated that hybrid constructs with a clinically relevant size could be much more feasible to print when reaching a tradeoff between temperature, nozzle diameter, and speed.
topic tissue engineering
polycaprolactone
porous scaffolds
hybrid constructs
3D printing
url https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/12/4/613
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