Poor oral habits and malocclusions after usage of orthodontic pacifiers: an observational study on 3–5 years old children

Abstract Background Pacifier sucking habit has been associated in the literature with alterations of dental occlusion, and it could be a predisposing factor for other poor oral habits among children. Orthodontic pacifiers have been introduced in the market aiming to reduce these disadvantages caused...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Silvia Caruso, Alessandro Nota, Atanaz Darvizeh, Marco Severino, Roberto Gatto, Simona Tecco
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: BMC 2019-08-01
Series:BMC Pediatrics
Subjects:
Online Access:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12887-019-1668-3
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Summary:Abstract Background Pacifier sucking habit has been associated in the literature with alterations of dental occlusion, and it could be a predisposing factor for other poor oral habits among children. Orthodontic pacifiers have been introduced in the market aiming to reduce these disadvantages caused by the conventional type of pacifiers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of poor oral habits and malocclusions, after usage of orthodontic pacifiers in children with primary dentition. Methods A sample of 198 pre-school children, aged 3–5 years, (96 males and 102 females) who had exclusively used an orthodontic pacifier were included in order to assess the level of poor oral habits and the absence/presence of dental malocclusion. Firstly, children’s parents/legal guardians were given a validated questionnaire, then the children were clinically examined at a dental clinic. Results Most of the children (79.79%) had started using the orthodontic pacifier within the first 3 months of life, and the 43.49% of them continued using it over a period of 2 years. The recorded percentage for those who had used it throughout sleep was 89.39%. Mouth breathing during the night was reported for 36.04% of the children. Tongue thrust swallow affected 16.16% of the sample. The 5.56% of the data indicated the presence of fingersucking/thumbsucking habit. The noted percentages for children with lip biting, lingual interposition between teeth at rest and those with nail biting, were 5.56, 12.63 and 15.15%, respectively. The regression revealed a significant contribution between early start of using an orthodontic pacifier with the prevalence of fingersucking/thumbsucking (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04–0.47, p = 0.0004). This also reported a noticeable increase of the malocclusion prevalence among the female gender (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.42–5.31), as well as those who were not exclusively breastfed (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.17–4.37). Conclusions Orthodontic pacifiers does not favor the development of poor oral habits, even if it has been used for a period of 2 years in children with primary dentition. Children who begin to use orthodontic pacifier between 0 and 3 months, are less likely to acquire fingersucking/thumbsucking habit. The use of an orthodontic pacifier appears not to be correlated with the prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition, differently from what stated in literature about the conventional type of pacifier.
ISSN:1471-2431