Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Identified After Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion: A Case Report

Metalia Puspitasari,1 Hemi Sinorita,2 Hendry Purnasidha Bagaswoto,3 Iri Kuswadi,1 Heru Prasanto,1 Yulia Wardhani,1 Wahyu Tri Kurniawan1 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada - Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indones...

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Main Authors: Puspitasari M, Sinorita H, Bagaswoto HP, Kuswadi I, Prasanto H, Wardhani Y, Kurniawan WT
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Dove Medical Press 2020-10-01
Series:International Medical Case Reports Journal
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Online Access:https://www.dovepress.com/persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-identified-after-hemodialysis-cathe-peer-reviewed-article-IMCRJ
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Summary:Metalia Puspitasari,1 Hemi Sinorita,2 Hendry Purnasidha Bagaswoto,3 Iri Kuswadi,1 Heru Prasanto,1 Yulia Wardhani,1 Wahyu Tri Kurniawan1 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada - Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada - Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 3Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada - Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaCorrespondence: Metalia PuspitasariDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada - Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Jl. Kesehatan No. 1, Yogyakarta 55284, IndonesiaTel +62 811 6110 283Email puspitasarimetalia@gmail.comIntroduction: Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is the most commonly performed clinical procedure when a patient initiates hemodialysis. Despite its clinical benefits, CVC insertion has several risks of complications. Thrombosis, venous stenosis, infection, arrhythmia, pneumothorax, and bleeding are among these complications. Malposition of the tip of the CVC can also occur with an incidence of up to 7%. One of several factors that could contribute to malposition is venous anatomy variation. Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is an extremely rare venous anatomical disorder but might have a significant clinical impact.Case Presentation: Here we report a PLSVC case that was identified in chest radiography after the insertion of a CVC catheter in a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A 40-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity was presented in the emergency room with dyspnea for 1 week. Acute hemodialysis was required because of the ESRD and pulmonary edema. The PLSVC condition accompanied by various complications that occurred in this patient became a dilemma for the nephrologist in determining the diagnosis and proper CVC management.Discussion: PLSVC is the most common congenital abnormality of the vena cava, even though it has a very small incidence. PLSVC occurs in about 0.1– 0.5% of the total population and reaches 10% in individuals with congenital heart abnormalities. Most PLSVC presents along with normal superior vena cava and drains into the right atrium, which makes it very difficult to see the clinical signs and symptoms. Almost all PLSVC conditions are found incidentally during or after invasive procedures such as CVC insertion. CVC insertion in the PLSVC condition needs proper management to minimize the risk of complications.Conclusion: This case shows the importance of understanding the PLSVC condition, which, although very rare, is expected to increase the awareness of the nephrologist in making the diagnosis, determining appropriate management, and preventing complications, thereby improving patient safety.Keywords: persistent left superior vena cava, PLSVC, central venous catheter, CVC, malposition, hemodialysis, end-stage renal disease, ESRD
ISSN:1179-142X