Malnutrition, enamel defects, and early childhood caries in preschool children in a sub-urban Nigeria population.

OBJECTIVES:The study tried to determine if malnutrition (underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight) and enamel defects (enamel hypoplasia, hypomineralized second molar, amelogenesis imperfecta, fluorosis) were associated with early childhood caries (ECC). The study also examined whether malnutritio...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Maha El Tantawi, Ayodeji Babatunde Oginni, Michael Alade, Abiola Adeniyi, Tracy L Finlayson
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Public Library of Science (PLoS) 2020-01-01
Series:PLoS ONE
Online Access:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232998
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Summary:OBJECTIVES:The study tried to determine if malnutrition (underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight) and enamel defects (enamel hypoplasia, hypomineralized second molar, amelogenesis imperfecta, fluorosis) were associated with early childhood caries (ECC). The study also examined whether malnutrition was associated with the presence of enamel defects in 0-5-year-old children. METHODS:The study was a secondary analysis of primary data of a cross-sectional study assessing the association between maternal psychosocial health and ECC in sub-urban Nigerian population collected in December 2018 and January 2019. One hundred and fifty nine children were recruited. Exploratory variables were malnutrition and enamel defects. The outcome variables were the prevalence of ECC in 0-2-year-old, 3-5-year-old, and 0-5-year-old children. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations, and socioeconomic status, oral hygiene status, and frequency of in-between-meals sugar consumption were adjusted for. The adjusted prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p values were calculated. RESULTS:The prevalence of ECC was 2.1% in 0-2-year-old children and 4.9% in 3-5-year-old children. In adjusted models, underweight, stunting, and wasting/overweight were not significant risk indicators for ECC in either age group. 0-2-year-old children who had amelogenesis imperfecta (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. 3-5-year-old children who had hypoplasia (p = 0.004), amelogenesis imperfecta (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. 0-5-year-old children with hypoplasia (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. There were significant associations between various types of malnutrition and various types of enamel defects. CONCLUSION:Although different types of malnutrition were associated with enamel defects, and enamel defects were associated with ECC, malnutrition was not associated with ECC. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between malnutrition and genetically and toxin-induced enamel defects.
ISSN:1932-6203