Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration

Articular cartilage (AC) covers the diarthrodial joints and is responsible for the mechanical distribution of loads across the joints. The majority of its structure and function is controlled by chondrocytes that regulate Extracellular Matrix (ECM) turnover and maintain tissue homeostasis. Imbalance...

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Main Authors: Hemanth Akkiraju, Anja Nohe
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2015-12-01
Series:Journal of Developmental Biology
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.mdpi.com/2221-3759/3/4/177
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spelling doaj-a7b542b106254909b9b0272dbcd9cd8f2020-11-24T22:43:10ZengMDPI AGJournal of Developmental Biology2221-37592015-12-013417719210.3390/jdb3040177jdb3040177Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage RegenerationHemanth Akkiraju0Anja Nohe1Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USABiological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USAArticular cartilage (AC) covers the diarthrodial joints and is responsible for the mechanical distribution of loads across the joints. The majority of its structure and function is controlled by chondrocytes that regulate Extracellular Matrix (ECM) turnover and maintain tissue homeostasis. Imbalance in their function leads to degenerative diseases like Osteoarthritis (OA). OA is characterized by cartilage degradation, osteophyte formation and stiffening of joints. Cartilage degeneration is a consequence of chondrocyte hypertrophy along with the expression of proteolytic enzymes. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTS) are an example of these enzymes that degrade the ECM. Signaling cascades involved in limb patterning and cartilage repair play a role in OA progression. However, the regulation of these remains to be elucidated. Further the role of stem cells and mature chondrocytes in OA progression is unclear. The progress in cell based therapies that utilize Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) infusion for cartilage repair may lead to new therapeutics in the long term. However, many questions are unanswered such as the efficacy of MSCs usage in therapy. This review focuses on the role of chondrocytes in cartilage formation and the progression of OA. Moreover, it summarizes possible alternative therapeutic approaches using MSC infusion for cartilage restoration.http://www.mdpi.com/2221-3759/3/4/177stem cellschondrocytesarticular cartilageextracellular matrixcollagensynovialbone
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Hemanth Akkiraju
Anja Nohe
spellingShingle Hemanth Akkiraju
Anja Nohe
Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration
Journal of Developmental Biology
stem cells
chondrocytes
articular cartilage
extracellular matrix
collagen
synovial
bone
author_facet Hemanth Akkiraju
Anja Nohe
author_sort Hemanth Akkiraju
title Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration
title_short Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration
title_full Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration
title_fullStr Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration
title_full_unstemmed Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration
title_sort role of chondrocytes in cartilage formation, progression of osteoarthritis and cartilage regeneration
publisher MDPI AG
series Journal of Developmental Biology
issn 2221-3759
publishDate 2015-12-01
description Articular cartilage (AC) covers the diarthrodial joints and is responsible for the mechanical distribution of loads across the joints. The majority of its structure and function is controlled by chondrocytes that regulate Extracellular Matrix (ECM) turnover and maintain tissue homeostasis. Imbalance in their function leads to degenerative diseases like Osteoarthritis (OA). OA is characterized by cartilage degradation, osteophyte formation and stiffening of joints. Cartilage degeneration is a consequence of chondrocyte hypertrophy along with the expression of proteolytic enzymes. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTS) are an example of these enzymes that degrade the ECM. Signaling cascades involved in limb patterning and cartilage repair play a role in OA progression. However, the regulation of these remains to be elucidated. Further the role of stem cells and mature chondrocytes in OA progression is unclear. The progress in cell based therapies that utilize Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) infusion for cartilage repair may lead to new therapeutics in the long term. However, many questions are unanswered such as the efficacy of MSCs usage in therapy. This review focuses on the role of chondrocytes in cartilage formation and the progression of OA. Moreover, it summarizes possible alternative therapeutic approaches using MSC infusion for cartilage restoration.
topic stem cells
chondrocytes
articular cartilage
extracellular matrix
collagen
synovial
bone
url http://www.mdpi.com/2221-3759/3/4/177
work_keys_str_mv AT hemanthakkiraju roleofchondrocytesincartilageformationprogressionofosteoarthritisandcartilageregeneration
AT anjanohe roleofchondrocytesincartilageformationprogressionofosteoarthritisandcartilageregeneration
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