sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study

Objective: In this publication, we suggest that young adults and seniors use various defense mechanisms to counteract loss of balance. One of the hypotheses is the change in the coordination of antagonistic muscle groups, especially within the ankles. In this study, we tried to determine if there is...

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Main Authors: Monika Błaszczyszyn, Agnieszka Szczęsna, Katarzyna Piechota
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2019-11-01
Series:International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/22/4307
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spelling doaj-aa584f9b7bfc4252b624a2f39940a2762020-11-24T21:33:38ZengMDPI AGInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health1660-46012019-11-011622430710.3390/ijerph16224307ijerph16224307sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot StudyMonika Błaszczyszyn0Agnieszka Szczęsna1Katarzyna Piechota2Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Prószkowska 76, 45-758 Opole, PolandInstitute of Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, PolandFaculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Prószkowska 76, 45-758 Opole, PolandObjective: In this publication, we suggest that young adults and seniors use various defense mechanisms to counteract loss of balance. One of the hypotheses is the change in the coordination of antagonistic muscle groups, especially within the ankles. In this study, we tried to determine if there is a relationship between the condition from resilient, to pre-frail, to frail and the ability to maintain balance during free standing and balance tasks. The aim of the study was to define the importance of muscle activity in the ankle joint, dorsal flexor of the foot for the following: tibialis anterior (TA), plantar flexor of the foot gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and peroneus longus (PER), during balance tasks with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). We hypothesized that there are differences in the activity and co-activation of the tested muscles in young and older women, which may indicate an increased risk of falls and walking disorders. Materials and methods: A group of 20 women qualified for the study. The group was divided into two subgroups, young (G1) and elderly women (G2). The aim of the study was to define the importance of muscle activity in the ankle joint, dorsal flexor of the foot for the following: tibialis anterior (TA), plantar flexor of the foot gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and peroneus longus (PER), during balance tasks with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). Results: In this study, we observed significant differences between groups in the maximum and mean values of electromyography activity (EMG) activation of the examined muscles on different types of surfaces and with open and closed eyes. Older women generated higher values of EMG activation in all muscles except the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. The results were significant for co-activation at rest for muscles as follows: tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis with eyes closed (<i>p</i> = 0.01) and peroneus and gastrocnemius lateralis at rest with eyes open (<i>p</i> = 0.03), eyes closed (<i>p</i> = 0.04), and on a foam (<i>p</i> = 0.02). The sEMG amplitude of the tested muscles means that agonist muscle activity changed relative to antagonistic muscle activity. Conclusions: Activation of sEMG and coordination of ankle muscles during balance tasks change with age. It can be hypothesized that assessment of balance during free standing and equivalent tasks can predict the state of frailty, after taking into account other physiological variables that are believed to affect balance control.https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/22/4307balance tasksdorsal flexorplantar flexorsurface electromyography
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Monika Błaszczyszyn
Agnieszka Szczęsna
Katarzyna Piechota
spellingShingle Monika Błaszczyszyn
Agnieszka Szczęsna
Katarzyna Piechota
sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
balance tasks
dorsal flexor
plantar flexor
surface electromyography
author_facet Monika Błaszczyszyn
Agnieszka Szczęsna
Katarzyna Piechota
author_sort Monika Błaszczyszyn
title sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study
title_short sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study
title_full sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study
title_fullStr sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study
title_full_unstemmed sEMG Activation of the Flexor Muscles in the Foot during Balance Tasks by Young and Older Women: A Pilot Study
title_sort semg activation of the flexor muscles in the foot during balance tasks by young and older women: a pilot study
publisher MDPI AG
series International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
issn 1660-4601
publishDate 2019-11-01
description Objective: In this publication, we suggest that young adults and seniors use various defense mechanisms to counteract loss of balance. One of the hypotheses is the change in the coordination of antagonistic muscle groups, especially within the ankles. In this study, we tried to determine if there is a relationship between the condition from resilient, to pre-frail, to frail and the ability to maintain balance during free standing and balance tasks. The aim of the study was to define the importance of muscle activity in the ankle joint, dorsal flexor of the foot for the following: tibialis anterior (TA), plantar flexor of the foot gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and peroneus longus (PER), during balance tasks with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). We hypothesized that there are differences in the activity and co-activation of the tested muscles in young and older women, which may indicate an increased risk of falls and walking disorders. Materials and methods: A group of 20 women qualified for the study. The group was divided into two subgroups, young (G1) and elderly women (G2). The aim of the study was to define the importance of muscle activity in the ankle joint, dorsal flexor of the foot for the following: tibialis anterior (TA), plantar flexor of the foot gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and peroneus longus (PER), during balance tasks with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). Results: In this study, we observed significant differences between groups in the maximum and mean values of electromyography activity (EMG) activation of the examined muscles on different types of surfaces and with open and closed eyes. Older women generated higher values of EMG activation in all muscles except the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. The results were significant for co-activation at rest for muscles as follows: tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis with eyes closed (<i>p</i> = 0.01) and peroneus and gastrocnemius lateralis at rest with eyes open (<i>p</i> = 0.03), eyes closed (<i>p</i> = 0.04), and on a foam (<i>p</i> = 0.02). The sEMG amplitude of the tested muscles means that agonist muscle activity changed relative to antagonistic muscle activity. Conclusions: Activation of sEMG and coordination of ankle muscles during balance tasks change with age. It can be hypothesized that assessment of balance during free standing and equivalent tasks can predict the state of frailty, after taking into account other physiological variables that are believed to affect balance control.
topic balance tasks
dorsal flexor
plantar flexor
surface electromyography
url https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/22/4307
work_keys_str_mv AT monikabłaszczyszyn semgactivationoftheflexormusclesinthefootduringbalancetasksbyyoungandolderwomenapilotstudy
AT agnieszkaszczesna semgactivationoftheflexormusclesinthefootduringbalancetasksbyyoungandolderwomenapilotstudy
AT katarzynapiechota semgactivationoftheflexormusclesinthefootduringbalancetasksbyyoungandolderwomenapilotstudy
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