Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?

Even though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of...

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Main Authors: Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Mary Yannakoulia, Costas A. Anastasiou, Nikolaos Scarmeas
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2018-09-01
Series:Brain Sciences
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/8/9/174
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spelling doaj-c133a7a1016a4409a72dd9b6930dbde72020-11-24T21:17:48ZengMDPI AGBrain Sciences2076-34252018-09-018917410.3390/brainsci8090174brainsci8090174Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?Dimitrios Poulimeneas0Mary Yannakoulia1Costas A. Anastasiou2Nikolaos Scarmeas3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, GR 17676 Athens, GreeceDepartment of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, GR 17676 Athens, GreeceDepartment of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, GR 17676 Athens, GreeceEginition Hospital, 1st Neurology Clinic, Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR 15772 Athens, GreeceEven though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of weight loss maintainers may provide a much-needed insight towards sustained obesity management. In this narrative review, we evaluate and critically discuss available evidence regarding the food-related neural responses of weight loss maintainers, as opposed to those of obese or lean persons. While research is still ongoing, available data indicate that following weight loss, maintainers exhibit persistent reward related feeling over food, similar to that of obese persons. However, unlike in obese persons, in maintainers, reward-related brain activity appears to be counteracted by subsequently heightened inhibition. These findings suggest that post-dieting, maintainers acquire a certain level of cognitive control which possibly protects them from weight regaining. The prefrontal cortex, as well as the limbic system, encompass key regions of interest for weight loss maintenance, and their contributions to long term successful weight loss should be further explored. Future possibilities and supportive theories are discussed.http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/8/9/174obesityweight loss maintenancemaintainersregainersneural processingfunctional neuroimaging
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Dimitrios Poulimeneas
Mary Yannakoulia
Costas A. Anastasiou
Nikolaos Scarmeas
spellingShingle Dimitrios Poulimeneas
Mary Yannakoulia
Costas A. Anastasiou
Nikolaos Scarmeas
Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
Brain Sciences
obesity
weight loss maintenance
maintainers
regainers
neural processing
functional neuroimaging
author_facet Dimitrios Poulimeneas
Mary Yannakoulia
Costas A. Anastasiou
Nikolaos Scarmeas
author_sort Dimitrios Poulimeneas
title Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
title_short Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
title_full Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
title_fullStr Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
title_full_unstemmed Weight Loss Maintenance: Have We Missed the Brain?
title_sort weight loss maintenance: have we missed the brain?
publisher MDPI AG
series Brain Sciences
issn 2076-3425
publishDate 2018-09-01
description Even though obese individuals often succeed with weight loss, long-term weight loss maintenance remains elusive. Dietary, lifestyle and psychosocial correlates of weight loss maintenance have been researched, yet the nature of maintenance is still poorly understood. Studying the neural processing of weight loss maintainers may provide a much-needed insight towards sustained obesity management. In this narrative review, we evaluate and critically discuss available evidence regarding the food-related neural responses of weight loss maintainers, as opposed to those of obese or lean persons. While research is still ongoing, available data indicate that following weight loss, maintainers exhibit persistent reward related feeling over food, similar to that of obese persons. However, unlike in obese persons, in maintainers, reward-related brain activity appears to be counteracted by subsequently heightened inhibition. These findings suggest that post-dieting, maintainers acquire a certain level of cognitive control which possibly protects them from weight regaining. The prefrontal cortex, as well as the limbic system, encompass key regions of interest for weight loss maintenance, and their contributions to long term successful weight loss should be further explored. Future possibilities and supportive theories are discussed.
topic obesity
weight loss maintenance
maintainers
regainers
neural processing
functional neuroimaging
url http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/8/9/174
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AT nikolaosscarmeas weightlossmaintenancehavewemissedthebrain
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