Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?

Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods are used to control human lice. Attempts have been made to eradicate head lice Pediculus humanus capitis by hot air, soaking in various fluids or asphyxiation using occlusive treatments. In this study, we assessed the maximum time that head lice can survive...

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Main Authors: Candy Kerdalidec, Brun Sophie, Nicolas Patrick, Durand Rémy, Charrel Remi N., Izri Arezki
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: EDP Sciences 2018-01-01
Series:Parasite
Subjects:
Online Access:https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2018015
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spelling doaj-caa764b8129a4691b0b6a850a77ff6bb2021-02-02T07:08:45ZengEDP SciencesParasite1776-10422018-01-0125810.1051/parasite/2018015parasite170108Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?Candy KerdalidecBrun SophieNicolas PatrickDurand RémyCharrel Remi N.Izri ArezkiChemical, physical, and mechanical methods are used to control human lice. Attempts have been made to eradicate head lice Pediculus humanus capitis by hot air, soaking in various fluids or asphyxiation using occlusive treatments. In this study, we assessed the maximum time that head lice can survive anoxia (oxygen deprivation) and their ability to survive prolonged water immersion. We also observed the ingress of fluids across louse tracheae and spiracle characteristics contrasting with those described in the literature. We showed that 100% of lice can withstand 8 h of anoxia and 12.2% survived 14 h of anoxia; survival was 48.9% in the untreated control group at 14 h. However, all lice had died following 16 h of anoxia. In contrast, the survival rate of water-immersed lice was significantly higher when compared with non-immersed lice after 6 h (100% vs. 76.6%, p = 0.0037), and 24 h (50.9% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.0003). Although water-immersed lice did not close their spiracles, water did not penetrate into the respiratory system. In contrast, immersion in colored dimeticone/cyclomethicone or colored ethanol resulted in penetration through the spiracles and spreading to the entire respiratory system within 30 min, leading to death in 100% of the lice.https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2018015Pediculus humanus capitisdrowningwateranoxiaoxygen
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Candy Kerdalidec
Brun Sophie
Nicolas Patrick
Durand Rémy
Charrel Remi N.
Izri Arezki
spellingShingle Candy Kerdalidec
Brun Sophie
Nicolas Patrick
Durand Rémy
Charrel Remi N.
Izri Arezki
Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
Parasite
Pediculus humanus capitis
drowning
water
anoxia
oxygen
author_facet Candy Kerdalidec
Brun Sophie
Nicolas Patrick
Durand Rémy
Charrel Remi N.
Izri Arezki
author_sort Candy Kerdalidec
title Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
title_short Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
title_full Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
title_fullStr Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
title_full_unstemmed Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
title_sort do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
publisher EDP Sciences
series Parasite
issn 1776-1042
publishDate 2018-01-01
description Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods are used to control human lice. Attempts have been made to eradicate head lice Pediculus humanus capitis by hot air, soaking in various fluids or asphyxiation using occlusive treatments. In this study, we assessed the maximum time that head lice can survive anoxia (oxygen deprivation) and their ability to survive prolonged water immersion. We also observed the ingress of fluids across louse tracheae and spiracle characteristics contrasting with those described in the literature. We showed that 100% of lice can withstand 8 h of anoxia and 12.2% survived 14 h of anoxia; survival was 48.9% in the untreated control group at 14 h. However, all lice had died following 16 h of anoxia. In contrast, the survival rate of water-immersed lice was significantly higher when compared with non-immersed lice after 6 h (100% vs. 76.6%, p = 0.0037), and 24 h (50.9% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.0003). Although water-immersed lice did not close their spiracles, water did not penetrate into the respiratory system. In contrast, immersion in colored dimeticone/cyclomethicone or colored ethanol resulted in penetration through the spiracles and spreading to the entire respiratory system within 30 min, leading to death in 100% of the lice.
topic Pediculus humanus capitis
drowning
water
anoxia
oxygen
url https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2018015
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AT charrelremin dodrowningandanoxiakillheadlice
AT izriarezki dodrowningandanoxiakillheadlice
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