Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon

Abstract Background In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of...

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Main Authors: Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti, Andreas Latz, Longdoh Anna Njunda, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: BMC 2017-07-01
Series:BMC Infectious Diseases
Subjects:
Online Access:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-017-2587-2
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spelling doaj-cd66fe5c841d43e38e75c20642e9f4ae2020-11-25T03:07:18ZengBMCBMC Infectious Diseases1471-23342017-07-0117111310.1186/s12879-017-2587-2Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in CameroonTebit Emmanuel Kwenti0Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti1Andreas Latz2Longdoh Anna Njunda3Theresa Nkuo-Akenji4Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of BueaDepartment of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of BueaResearch and Development Department, NovaTec Immundiagnostica GmbHDepartment of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of BueaDepartment of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of BueaAbstract Background In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata, and the Coastal (C) strata. Methods This study involved 1609 febrile children (≤15 years) recruited using reference hospitals in the five epidemiological strata. Baseline characteristics were determined; blood glucose level was measured by a glucometer, malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Giemsa microscopy, and complete blood count was performed using an automated hematology analyser. Severe malaria was assessed and categorized based on WHO criteria. Results An overall prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI: 13.3–16.9) for malaria was observed in this study. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children between 60 and 119 months (p < 0.001) and in Limbe (C strata) (p < 0.001). The overall rate of severe malaria (SM) attack in this study was 29.3%; SM was significantly higher in children below 60 months (p < 0.046). Although not significant, the rate of SM was highest in Maroua (SS strata) and lowest in Limbe in the C strata. The main clinical phenotypes of SM were hyperparasitaemia, severe malaria anaemia and impaired consciousness. The majority (73.2%) of SM cases were in group 1 of the WHO classification of severe malaria (i.e. the most severe form). The malaria case-fatality rate was 5.8%; this was higher in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p = 0.034). Conclusion In this study, malaria prevalence decreased steadily northward, from the C strata in the South to the SS strata in the North of Cameroon, meanwhile the mortality rate associated with malaria increased in the same direction. On the contrary, the rate of severe malaria attack was similar across the different epidemiological strata. Immunoepidemiological studies will be required to shed more light on the observed trends.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-017-2587-2Paediatric malariaUncomplicated malariaSevere malariaPrevalenceEpidemiological strataCameroon
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti
Andreas Latz
Longdoh Anna Njunda
Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
spellingShingle Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti
Andreas Latz
Longdoh Anna Njunda
Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon
BMC Infectious Diseases
Paediatric malaria
Uncomplicated malaria
Severe malaria
Prevalence
Epidemiological strata
Cameroon
author_facet Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti
Andreas Latz
Longdoh Anna Njunda
Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
author_sort Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
title Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon
title_short Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon
title_full Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon
title_fullStr Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon
title_full_unstemmed Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon
title_sort epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in cameroon
publisher BMC
series BMC Infectious Diseases
issn 1471-2334
publishDate 2017-07-01
description Abstract Background In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata, and the Coastal (C) strata. Methods This study involved 1609 febrile children (≤15 years) recruited using reference hospitals in the five epidemiological strata. Baseline characteristics were determined; blood glucose level was measured by a glucometer, malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Giemsa microscopy, and complete blood count was performed using an automated hematology analyser. Severe malaria was assessed and categorized based on WHO criteria. Results An overall prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI: 13.3–16.9) for malaria was observed in this study. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children between 60 and 119 months (p < 0.001) and in Limbe (C strata) (p < 0.001). The overall rate of severe malaria (SM) attack in this study was 29.3%; SM was significantly higher in children below 60 months (p < 0.046). Although not significant, the rate of SM was highest in Maroua (SS strata) and lowest in Limbe in the C strata. The main clinical phenotypes of SM were hyperparasitaemia, severe malaria anaemia and impaired consciousness. The majority (73.2%) of SM cases were in group 1 of the WHO classification of severe malaria (i.e. the most severe form). The malaria case-fatality rate was 5.8%; this was higher in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p = 0.034). Conclusion In this study, malaria prevalence decreased steadily northward, from the C strata in the South to the SS strata in the North of Cameroon, meanwhile the mortality rate associated with malaria increased in the same direction. On the contrary, the rate of severe malaria attack was similar across the different epidemiological strata. Immunoepidemiological studies will be required to shed more light on the observed trends.
topic Paediatric malaria
Uncomplicated malaria
Severe malaria
Prevalence
Epidemiological strata
Cameroon
url http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-017-2587-2
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