Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review

Wearable and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in sports open a new era in athlete’s training, not only for performance monitoring and evaluation but also for fitness assessment. These technologies rely on sensor systems that collect, process and transmit relevant data, such as biomarkers and/or...

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Main Authors: João Passos, Sérgio Ivan Lopes, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Pedro Miguel Moreira, Markel Rico-González, Pedro Bezerra, Luís Paulo Rodrigues
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: MDPI AG 2021-08-01
Series:Sensors
Subjects:
IoT
Online Access:https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/21/16/5418
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spelling doaj-d291d69a05fa4fcd9ba5cad88fdd82752021-08-26T14:18:59ZengMDPI AGSensors1424-82202021-08-01215418541810.3390/s21165418Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic ReviewJoão Passos0Sérgio Ivan Lopes1Filipe Manuel Clemente2Pedro Miguel Moreira3Markel Rico-González4Pedro Bezerra5Luís Paulo Rodrigues6ADiT-LAB, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, PortugalADiT-LAB, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, PortugalEscola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, PortugalADiT-LAB, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, PortugalDepartment of Physical Education and Sport, University of the Basque Country, UPV-EHU, Lasarte 71, 01007 Vitoria-Gasteiz, SpainEscola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, PortugalEscola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, PortugalWearable and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in sports open a new era in athlete’s training, not only for performance monitoring and evaluation but also for fitness assessment. These technologies rely on sensor systems that collect, process and transmit relevant data, such as biomarkers and/or other performance indicators that are crucial to evaluate the evolution of the athlete’s condition, and therefore potentiate their performance. This work aims to identify and summarize recent studies that have used wearables and IoT technologies and discuss its applicability for fitness assessment. A systematic review of electronic databases (WOS, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, SCIELO, IEEEXplore, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane and Web of Science) was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 280 studies initially identified, 20 were fully examined in terms of hardware and software and their applicability for fitness assessment. Results have shown that wearable and IoT technologies have been used in sports not only for fitness assessment but also for monitoring the athlete’s internal and external workloads, employing physiological status monitoring and activity recognition and tracking techniques. However, the maturity level of such technologies is still low, particularly with the need for the acquisition of more—and more effective—biomarkers regarding the athlete’s internal workload, which limits its wider adoption by the sports community.https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/21/16/5418wearablessmart wearablesIoTIoT in sportsfitness assessment
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author João Passos
Sérgio Ivan Lopes
Filipe Manuel Clemente
Pedro Miguel Moreira
Markel Rico-González
Pedro Bezerra
Luís Paulo Rodrigues
spellingShingle João Passos
Sérgio Ivan Lopes
Filipe Manuel Clemente
Pedro Miguel Moreira
Markel Rico-González
Pedro Bezerra
Luís Paulo Rodrigues
Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review
Sensors
wearables
smart wearables
IoT
IoT in sports
fitness assessment
author_facet João Passos
Sérgio Ivan Lopes
Filipe Manuel Clemente
Pedro Miguel Moreira
Markel Rico-González
Pedro Bezerra
Luís Paulo Rodrigues
author_sort João Passos
title Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review
title_short Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review
title_full Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review
title_fullStr Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review
title_full_unstemmed Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Fitness Assessment: A Systematic Review
title_sort wearables and internet of things (iot) technologies for fitness assessment: a systematic review
publisher MDPI AG
series Sensors
issn 1424-8220
publishDate 2021-08-01
description Wearable and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in sports open a new era in athlete’s training, not only for performance monitoring and evaluation but also for fitness assessment. These technologies rely on sensor systems that collect, process and transmit relevant data, such as biomarkers and/or other performance indicators that are crucial to evaluate the evolution of the athlete’s condition, and therefore potentiate their performance. This work aims to identify and summarize recent studies that have used wearables and IoT technologies and discuss its applicability for fitness assessment. A systematic review of electronic databases (WOS, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, SCIELO, IEEEXplore, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane and Web of Science) was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 280 studies initially identified, 20 were fully examined in terms of hardware and software and their applicability for fitness assessment. Results have shown that wearable and IoT technologies have been used in sports not only for fitness assessment but also for monitoring the athlete’s internal and external workloads, employing physiological status monitoring and activity recognition and tracking techniques. However, the maturity level of such technologies is still low, particularly with the need for the acquisition of more—and more effective—biomarkers regarding the athlete’s internal workload, which limits its wider adoption by the sports community.
topic wearables
smart wearables
IoT
IoT in sports
fitness assessment
url https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/21/16/5418
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