Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

Western environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In...

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Main Authors: Iftikhar Alam, M. Waseem Khan, Abdul Razzaq
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Society of Economic Geologists and Mineral Technologists 2015-12-01
Series:International Journal of Economic and Environment Geology
Subjects:
Online Access:http://www.econ-environ-geol.org/pdf/jun2015/01.pdf
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spelling doaj-f389521127664bd09d39068eb51605c32020-11-25T00:55:59ZengSociety of Economic Geologists and Mineral TechnologistsInternational Journal of Economic and Environment Geology2223-957X2223-957X2015-12-0162110Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North PakistanIftikhar Alam0M. Waseem Khan 1Abdul Razzaq2Atomic Energy Minerals Centre, Lahore, PakistanAtomic Energy Minerals Centre, Lahore, PakistanAtomic Energy Minerals Centre, Lahore, PakistanWestern environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In the Trans-Indus Salt ranges the Lumshiwal Formation represents the transitional level of the lower Cretaceous sequence. In Surghar Range the lower part of formation is composed of cyclic alteration of clayey, silty, very fine grained greenish gray, glauconitic sandstone to rusty brownish gray sandstone. The middle part of formation is comprised of thick bedded to massive, cliff forming, sugary texture, whitish to light yellowish gray occasionally rusty brownish gray medium to coarse grained, moderate to well cemented sandstone. The upper part is comprised of feldspathic, ferruginous, weathering yellowish brown, rusty brown to light gray with locally calcareous sandstone beds. The sandstone is reddish to brownish gray, coarse to granules texture, moderately cemented thick bedded to massive. Total thickness of the formation is 220m at Baroch Nala section 230m in Karandi section at a dip of 60°. Along trend lithological variations and diversified primary sedimentary structures which classifies fifteen different sub-lithofacie in Lumshiwal. Middle and upper parts of the formation show massive to thick, current bedded deposits. Lithofacies analysis revealed that the Lumshiwal Formation was deposited in shallow marine for the lower cyclic part to transitionally prodeltaic to deltaic for the middle to upper part respectively. High silica contents in the upper part compare to the middle and lower part of the formation. On the basis of high silica and low alumina with other low fractions of rock fragments, the sandstone is categorized into quartzarenite, sub-litharenite and sub-arkose. Cross beds in the middle and upper parts of formation indicate west to east directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite) which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region. http://www.econ-environ-geol.org/pdf/jun2015/01.pdfLumshiwalsandstonelithofaciesgeochemistrySurgharquartzarenite.
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Iftikhar Alam
M. Waseem Khan
Abdul Razzaq
spellingShingle Iftikhar Alam
M. Waseem Khan
Abdul Razzaq
Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan
International Journal of Economic and Environment Geology
Lumshiwal
sandstone
lithofacies
geochemistry
Surghar
quartzarenite.
author_facet Iftikhar Alam
M. Waseem Khan
Abdul Razzaq
author_sort Iftikhar Alam
title Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan
title_short Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan
title_full Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan
title_fullStr Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan
title_full_unstemmed Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan
title_sort lithofacies architecturing and hydrocarbon reservoir potential of lumshiwal formation: surghar range, trans-indus ranges, north pakistan
publisher Society of Economic Geologists and Mineral Technologists
series International Journal of Economic and Environment Geology
issn 2223-957X
2223-957X
publishDate 2015-12-01
description Western environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In the Trans-Indus Salt ranges the Lumshiwal Formation represents the transitional level of the lower Cretaceous sequence. In Surghar Range the lower part of formation is composed of cyclic alteration of clayey, silty, very fine grained greenish gray, glauconitic sandstone to rusty brownish gray sandstone. The middle part of formation is comprised of thick bedded to massive, cliff forming, sugary texture, whitish to light yellowish gray occasionally rusty brownish gray medium to coarse grained, moderate to well cemented sandstone. The upper part is comprised of feldspathic, ferruginous, weathering yellowish brown, rusty brown to light gray with locally calcareous sandstone beds. The sandstone is reddish to brownish gray, coarse to granules texture, moderately cemented thick bedded to massive. Total thickness of the formation is 220m at Baroch Nala section 230m in Karandi section at a dip of 60°. Along trend lithological variations and diversified primary sedimentary structures which classifies fifteen different sub-lithofacie in Lumshiwal. Middle and upper parts of the formation show massive to thick, current bedded deposits. Lithofacies analysis revealed that the Lumshiwal Formation was deposited in shallow marine for the lower cyclic part to transitionally prodeltaic to deltaic for the middle to upper part respectively. High silica contents in the upper part compare to the middle and lower part of the formation. On the basis of high silica and low alumina with other low fractions of rock fragments, the sandstone is categorized into quartzarenite, sub-litharenite and sub-arkose. Cross beds in the middle and upper parts of formation indicate west to east directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite) which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region.
topic Lumshiwal
sandstone
lithofacies
geochemistry
Surghar
quartzarenite.
url http://www.econ-environ-geol.org/pdf/jun2015/01.pdf
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