A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents

The citrus industry is one of South Africa's largest agricultural sectors in terms of export earnings with lemon fruits and juice as a trendsetter due to their high grade quality. According to growers, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa alone produces an excess of about 10-14,000 tons of...

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Main Author: Ndibewu, Peter Papoh
Format: Others
Language:English
Published: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University 2005
Subjects:
Online Access:http://hdl.handle.net/10948/153
id ndltd-netd.ac.za-oai-union.ndltd.org-nmmu-vital-10368
record_format oai_dc
collection NDLTD
language English
format Others
sources NDLTD
topic Chelates
Lemon juice
Liquid fertilizers
spellingShingle Chelates
Lemon juice
Liquid fertilizers
Ndibewu, Peter Papoh
A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
description The citrus industry is one of South Africa's largest agricultural sectors in terms of export earnings with lemon fruits and juice as a trendsetter due to their high grade quality. According to growers, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa alone produces an excess of about 10-14,000 tons of lemon juice which is presently of no economic value due to the sour taste and “bitterness”. As a result of this excess and in order to make use of the polyprotic acids naturally occurring in the lemon juice, four fertilizer nutrient mixtures are formulated, using lemon juice as base. From a conceptual scientific approach, characterization (physico-chemical and functional properties determinations) of Eureka Lemon fruit juices were undertaken, followed by smaller scale batch formulation experiments. On the basis that these lemon juice-based fertilizer mixtures are prepared following standard liquid fertilizer formulation guidelines, a field test was conducted to evaluate their potential effectiveness to influence plant growth. A growth chamber testing on tomato plants revealed high growth response (> 99.9 % certainty) potential in two of the semi-organic mixtures formulated while the organic mixture showed a relatively good growth rate as compared to the control (pure tap water). According to statistical analysis (ANOVA) comparison, two of the semi-organic mixtures performed considerably better than the two commercial samples evaluated. Potential benefits profoundly associated with these nutrient mixtures as compared to similar liquid fertilizer products on the market is that most nutrients are chelated and dissolved in solution. Also, the mixtures contain all necessary nutrients including plant growth substances required for healthier plant growth. The most important socioeconomic impact is the value addition to the technology chain in the citrus industry. The use of fluid fertilizers in significant quantities is less than twenty years old. Nevertheless, growth has been so rapid that in South Africa demand for mixed liquid fertilizer has greatly increased from 90 000 tons NPK & blended micronutrients in 1955 to more than 600 000 per annum tons today (Report 41/2003, Department of Minerals and Energy). The liquid fertilizers market is sparsely specialized with major competitors like Omnia, Kynoch and Foskor supplying more than 50 % of the market demand. Amongst the nutrient mixtures formulated, mixture one is an NPK (1-1-2) based nutrient mixture containing both secondary nutrients (0.5 % Mg & 1.0 % Ca) and seven micronutrients (0.1 % Fe, 0.05 % Cu, 0.05 % Zn, 0.05 % Mn, 0.02 % B, 0.0005 % Mo and 0.0005 % Co). The composition of this mixture offers the formula a potential to be used as a general purpose (all stages of plant growth) fertilization mixture in view of its balanced composition (containing all essential plant nutrients). Mixture two contains essentially the micronutrients and in higher concentrations (0.3 % Fe, 0.3 % Cu, 0.1 % Zn, 0.2 % Mn, 0.02 % B, 0.0005 % Mo and 0.0005 % Co) as compared to mixture one except for boron, molybdenum and cobalt. The concentration of the micronutrients contained in this mixture is adequately high which offers a potential for it to be used in supplementing nutrition in plants with critical micronutrient-deficient symptoms. Mixture three is very similar to mixture two (1.0 % Fe, 0.05 % Cu, 0.05 % Zn, 0.05 Mn, 0.05 % B, 0.0005 % Mo and 0.0005 % Co) except that the concentrations of all seven micronutrients are considerably less than those of contained in mixture two. However, the concentration of iron in this mixture is as high as 1.0 %. The mixture has a potential to be used in high iron-deficient situations. Mixture four is an organic formula with relatively low nutrient concentrations (NPK-0.02-0.02-1, 0.27 % Mg, 0.02 % Ca, 0.008 % Fe, 0.26 % Cu, 0.012 % Zn, 0.009 % Mn). Nevertheless, this mixture is appealing for organically grown crops where the use of chemicals is prohibited by standards. These lemon juice-based nutrient mixtures were further characterized and tested for stability and storability over a period of eight weeks. This study revealed no major change in the physical quality (colour, pH and “salt out” effect). The basic formulation methodology is a two-step procedure that involves filtration of the lemon juice to remove membranous materials, mixing at ambient temperature and stabilization of the nutrient mixtures. However, for the organic nutrient formula mix, filtration follows after extraction of nutrients from plant materials using the lemon juice.
author Ndibewu, Peter Papoh
author_facet Ndibewu, Peter Papoh
author_sort Ndibewu, Peter Papoh
title A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
title_short A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
title_full A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
title_fullStr A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
title_full_unstemmed A commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
title_sort commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agents
publisher Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
publishDate 2005
url http://hdl.handle.net/10948/153
work_keys_str_mv AT ndibewupeterpapoh acommercialprocessdevelopmentforplantfoodformulationusingpolyproticacidsfromnaturalextractsaschelatingagents
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spelling ndltd-netd.ac.za-oai-union.ndltd.org-nmmu-vital-103682017-12-21T04:22:39ZA commercial process development for plant food formulation using polyprotic acids from natural extracts as chelating agentsNdibewu, Peter PapohChelatesLemon juiceLiquid fertilizersThe citrus industry is one of South Africa's largest agricultural sectors in terms of export earnings with lemon fruits and juice as a trendsetter due to their high grade quality. According to growers, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa alone produces an excess of about 10-14,000 tons of lemon juice which is presently of no economic value due to the sour taste and “bitterness”. As a result of this excess and in order to make use of the polyprotic acids naturally occurring in the lemon juice, four fertilizer nutrient mixtures are formulated, using lemon juice as base. From a conceptual scientific approach, characterization (physico-chemical and functional properties determinations) of Eureka Lemon fruit juices were undertaken, followed by smaller scale batch formulation experiments. On the basis that these lemon juice-based fertilizer mixtures are prepared following standard liquid fertilizer formulation guidelines, a field test was conducted to evaluate their potential effectiveness to influence plant growth. A growth chamber testing on tomato plants revealed high growth response (> 99.9 % certainty) potential in two of the semi-organic mixtures formulated while the organic mixture showed a relatively good growth rate as compared to the control (pure tap water). According to statistical analysis (ANOVA) comparison, two of the semi-organic mixtures performed considerably better than the two commercial samples evaluated. Potential benefits profoundly associated with these nutrient mixtures as compared to similar liquid fertilizer products on the market is that most nutrients are chelated and dissolved in solution. Also, the mixtures contain all necessary nutrients including plant growth substances required for healthier plant growth. The most important socioeconomic impact is the value addition to the technology chain in the citrus industry. The use of fluid fertilizers in significant quantities is less than twenty years old. Nevertheless, growth has been so rapid that in South Africa demand for mixed liquid fertilizer has greatly increased from 90 000 tons NPK & blended micronutrients in 1955 to more than 600 000 per annum tons today (Report 41/2003, Department of Minerals and Energy). The liquid fertilizers market is sparsely specialized with major competitors like Omnia, Kynoch and Foskor supplying more than 50 % of the market demand. Amongst the nutrient mixtures formulated, mixture one is an NPK (1-1-2) based nutrient mixture containing both secondary nutrients (0.5 % Mg & 1.0 % Ca) and seven micronutrients (0.1 % Fe, 0.05 % Cu, 0.05 % Zn, 0.05 % Mn, 0.02 % B, 0.0005 % Mo and 0.0005 % Co). The composition of this mixture offers the formula a potential to be used as a general purpose (all stages of plant growth) fertilization mixture in view of its balanced composition (containing all essential plant nutrients). Mixture two contains essentially the micronutrients and in higher concentrations (0.3 % Fe, 0.3 % Cu, 0.1 % Zn, 0.2 % Mn, 0.02 % B, 0.0005 % Mo and 0.0005 % Co) as compared to mixture one except for boron, molybdenum and cobalt. The concentration of the micronutrients contained in this mixture is adequately high which offers a potential for it to be used in supplementing nutrition in plants with critical micronutrient-deficient symptoms. Mixture three is very similar to mixture two (1.0 % Fe, 0.05 % Cu, 0.05 % Zn, 0.05 Mn, 0.05 % B, 0.0005 % Mo and 0.0005 % Co) except that the concentrations of all seven micronutrients are considerably less than those of contained in mixture two. However, the concentration of iron in this mixture is as high as 1.0 %. The mixture has a potential to be used in high iron-deficient situations. Mixture four is an organic formula with relatively low nutrient concentrations (NPK-0.02-0.02-1, 0.27 % Mg, 0.02 % Ca, 0.008 % Fe, 0.26 % Cu, 0.012 % Zn, 0.009 % Mn). Nevertheless, this mixture is appealing for organically grown crops where the use of chemicals is prohibited by standards. These lemon juice-based nutrient mixtures were further characterized and tested for stability and storability over a period of eight weeks. This study revealed no major change in the physical quality (colour, pH and “salt out” effect). The basic formulation methodology is a two-step procedure that involves filtration of the lemon juice to remove membranous materials, mixing at ambient temperature and stabilization of the nutrient mixtures. However, for the organic nutrient formula mix, filtration follows after extraction of nutrients from plant materials using the lemon juice.Nelson Mandela Metropolitan UniversityFaculty of Science2005ThesisDoctoralDTech (Chemistry)xii, 196, 6 leavespdfvital:10368http://hdl.handle.net/10948/153EnglishNelson Mandela Metropolitan University