|Abstract In the dawn of energy crisis and rising challenges in powering distributed low energy portable devices, nanogenerators, a class of mechanical energy harvesters is gaining increasing interest in fundamental research and commercial applications. Nanogenerators harvest energy by transducing mechanical energy into electric energy, the performance is highly related to the mechanical and electrical properties of the materials and devices. A typical nanogenerator consists of a substrate, a functional triboelectric active layer, electrode, and separator, which overall built‐up a three dimensional (3D) structure. 3D printing with its ability to form complex 3D structures possess coveted advantages in the development of nanogenerators. In this review, we introduce the importance of 3D structures for nanogenerators and explicitly discuss the different 3D printing methods and the ink formulation to tackle the challenges in 3D structured nanogenerators. Additionally, the principle and application of 4D printing in nanogenerator fabrication are critically highlighted.