|Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the solid organ transplant recipient (SOTR); nevertheless, the prevalence of colonization and of the colonizing/infecting serotypes has not been studied in this population. In this context, the aim of the present study was to describe the rate, characteristics, and clinical impact of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage. Methods A prospective observational cohort of Solid Organ Transplant recipients (SOTR) was held at the University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain with the aim to evaluate the S. pneumoniae colonization and the serotype prevalence in SOTR. Two different pharyngeal swabs samples from 500 patients were included in two different seasonal periods winter and spring/summer. Optochin and bile solubility tests were performed for the isolation of thew strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies (MICs, mg/l) of levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, azithromycin and vancomycin for each isolate were determined by E-test strips. Capsular typing was done by sequential multiplex PCR reactions. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors potentially associated with pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and disease was performed. Results Twenty-six (5.6%) and fifteen (3.2%) patients were colonized in winter and spring/summer periods, respectively. Colonized SOT recipients compared to non-colonized patients were more frequently men (79.5% vs. 63.1%, P < 0.05) and cohabitated regularly with children (59% vs. 32.2%, P < 0.001). The most prevalent serotype in both studied periods was 35B. Forty-five percent of total isolates were included in the pneumococcal vaccine PPV23. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and macrolides were the less active antibiotics. Three patients had non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, and two of them died. Conclusions Pneumococcal colonization in SOTR is low with the most colonizing serotypes not included in the pneumococcal vaccines.