Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling

After injury to periodontal tissues, a sequentially phased healing response is initiated that enables wound closure and partial restoration of tissue structure and function. Wound closure in periodontal tissues involves the tightly regulated coordination of resident cells in epithelial and connectiv...

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Main Authors: Patricio C. Smith, Constanza Martínez, Jorge Martínez, Christopher A. McCulloch
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Frontiers Media S.A. 2019-04-01
Series:Frontiers in Physiology
Subjects:
Online Access:https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2019.00270/full
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spelling doaj-5a41921cdc054391bf48e68adeef3d692020-11-24T21:50:27ZengFrontiers Media S.A.Frontiers in Physiology1664-042X2019-04-011010.3389/fphys.2019.00270445849Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue RemodelingPatricio C. Smith0Constanza Martínez1Jorge Martínez2Christopher A. McCulloch3Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, ChileFaculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, ChileLaboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, ChileFaculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAfter injury to periodontal tissues, a sequentially phased healing response is initiated that enables wound closure and partial restoration of tissue structure and function. Wound closure in periodontal tissues involves the tightly regulated coordination of resident cells in epithelial and connective tissue compartments. Multiple cell populations in these compartments synergize their metabolic activities to reestablish a mucosal seal that involves the underlying periodontal connective tissues and the attachment of these tissues to the tooth surface. The formation of an impermeable seal around the circumference of the tooth is of particular significance in oral health since colonization of tooth surfaces by pathogenic biofilms promotes inflammation, which can contribute to periodontal tissue degradation and tooth loss. The reformation of periodontal tissue structures in the healing response centrally involves fibroblasts, which synthesize and organize the collagen fibers that link alveolar bone and gingiva to the cementum covering the tooth root. The synthesis and remodeling of nascent collagen matrices are of fundamental importance for the reestablishment of a functional periodontium and are mediated by diverse, multi-functional fibroblast populations that reside within the connective tissues of gingiva and periodontal ligament. Notably, after gingival wounding, a fibroblast sub-type (myofibroblast) arises, which is centrally involved in collagen synthesis and fibrillar remodeling. While myofibroblasts are not usually seen in healthy, mature connective tissues, their formation is enhanced by wound-healing cytokines. The formation of myofibroblasts is also modulated by the stiffness of the extracellular matrix, which is mechanosensed by resident precursor cells in the gingival connective tissue microenvironment. Here, we consider the cellular origins and the factors that control the differentiation and matrix remodeling functions of periodontal fibroblasts. An improved understanding of the regulation and function of periodontal fibroblasts will be critical for the development of new therapies to optimize the restoration of periodontal structure and function after wounding.https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2019.00270/fullperiodontalgingivalwound healingconnective tissuefibroblast
collection DOAJ
language English
format Article
sources DOAJ
author Patricio C. Smith
Constanza Martínez
Jorge Martínez
Christopher A. McCulloch
spellingShingle Patricio C. Smith
Constanza Martínez
Jorge Martínez
Christopher A. McCulloch
Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling
Frontiers in Physiology
periodontal
gingival
wound healing
connective tissue
fibroblast
author_facet Patricio C. Smith
Constanza Martínez
Jorge Martínez
Christopher A. McCulloch
author_sort Patricio C. Smith
title Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling
title_short Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling
title_full Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling
title_fullStr Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling
title_full_unstemmed Role of Fibroblast Populations in Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling
title_sort role of fibroblast populations in periodontal wound healing and tissue remodeling
publisher Frontiers Media S.A.
series Frontiers in Physiology
issn 1664-042X
publishDate 2019-04-01
description After injury to periodontal tissues, a sequentially phased healing response is initiated that enables wound closure and partial restoration of tissue structure and function. Wound closure in periodontal tissues involves the tightly regulated coordination of resident cells in epithelial and connective tissue compartments. Multiple cell populations in these compartments synergize their metabolic activities to reestablish a mucosal seal that involves the underlying periodontal connective tissues and the attachment of these tissues to the tooth surface. The formation of an impermeable seal around the circumference of the tooth is of particular significance in oral health since colonization of tooth surfaces by pathogenic biofilms promotes inflammation, which can contribute to periodontal tissue degradation and tooth loss. The reformation of periodontal tissue structures in the healing response centrally involves fibroblasts, which synthesize and organize the collagen fibers that link alveolar bone and gingiva to the cementum covering the tooth root. The synthesis and remodeling of nascent collagen matrices are of fundamental importance for the reestablishment of a functional periodontium and are mediated by diverse, multi-functional fibroblast populations that reside within the connective tissues of gingiva and periodontal ligament. Notably, after gingival wounding, a fibroblast sub-type (myofibroblast) arises, which is centrally involved in collagen synthesis and fibrillar remodeling. While myofibroblasts are not usually seen in healthy, mature connective tissues, their formation is enhanced by wound-healing cytokines. The formation of myofibroblasts is also modulated by the stiffness of the extracellular matrix, which is mechanosensed by resident precursor cells in the gingival connective tissue microenvironment. Here, we consider the cellular origins and the factors that control the differentiation and matrix remodeling functions of periodontal fibroblasts. An improved understanding of the regulation and function of periodontal fibroblasts will be critical for the development of new therapies to optimize the restoration of periodontal structure and function after wounding.
topic periodontal
gingival
wound healing
connective tissue
fibroblast
url https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2019.00270/full
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