|Cementum was first demonstrated by microscopy, about 180 years ago. Since then the biology of cementum has been investigated by the most advanced techniques and equipment at that time in various fields of dental sciences. A great deal of data on cementum histology have been accumulated. These data have been obtained from not only human, but also non-human animals, in particular, rodents such as the mouse and rat. Although many dental histologists have reviewed histology of human cementum, some descriptions are questionable, probably due to incorrect comparison of human and rodent cementum. This review was designed to introduce current histology of human cementum, i.e. its structure, function, and development and to re-examine the most questionable and controversial conclusions made in previous reports.