Association of Nicotine with Osteochondrogenesis and Osteoarthritis Development: The State of the Art of Preclinical Research

The deleterious effects of nicotine on various health conditions have been well documented. Although many orthopedic diseases are adversely affected by nicotine, little is known about its preclinical effects on chondrogenesis or osteogenesis, cartilage formation, osteoarthritis (OA), and osteochondr...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Xiaoyu Cai, Liang Gao, Magali Cucchiarini, Henning Madry
Format: Article
Published: MDPI AG 2019-10-01
Series:Journal of Clinical Medicine
Online Access: