Tri-Trophic Impacts of Bt-Transgenic Maize on Parasitoid Size and Fluctuating Asymmetry in Native vs. Novel Host-Parasitoid Interactions in East Africa

Environmental stress can affect trait size and cause an increase in the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral morphological traits in many animals. For insect parasitoids, feeding of hosts on transgenic maize, expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene is a potential environmental stressor. We...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Dennis O. Ndolo, Josephine M. Songa, Gábor L. Lövei
Format: Article
Published: MDPI AG 2018-03-01
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