Effect of concentration of calcium and sulfate ions on gypsum scaling of reverse osmosis membrane, mechanistic study

In seawater reverse osmosis, membrane scaling is one of the major issues affecting its widespread application in the desalination industry. In this paper, the effect of concentration of calcium and sulfate ions from 20 to 150 mM on calcium sulfate scaling of reverse osmosis (RO) and graphene oxide f...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Authors: Mohammad Y. Ashfaq, Mohammad A. Al-Ghouti, Dana A. Da’na, Hazim Qiblawey, Nabil Zouari
Format: Article
Published: Elsevier 2020-11-01
Series:Journal of Materials Research and Technology
Online Access:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785420318408